Order lorazepam 2mg online in usa
96% like it View all 1181 reviews $0.29 - $3.93 per pill

ativan prescription doctor


The malarial organisms are muchmore susceptible to quinine than the common water amoeba, however;another organism which is found order lorazepam 2mg online in usa in the blood of birds has provedresistant to quinine. order lorazepam 2mg online in usa with these strength tablets the dose should be taken at least 30 order lorazepam 2mg online in usa minutes before intended sex. The little blue pill may do more than get the blood pumping. 6lproving the circulation of the kidney. Pde5 inhibitors, including, and seek medical attention in the event of a sudden loss of vision in one or both eyes. The major circulating metabolite is the methylcatechol ativan and dogs glucuronide. Surfaceactive agents also may play an important role in determiningwhether an oil-in-water (o/w) or a water-in-oil (w/o) emulsionpreferentially survives the shearing action.once the process of dispersion begins there develops simultaneously a tendency for the system to revert to an energetically more stable state, manifested want to buy lorazepam online europe by flocculation, coalescence,sedimentation, crystal growth, and caking phenomena. Quinidine, procainamide) or classiii (e. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. They do not treat viral order lorazepam 2mg online in usa infections (e., the common cold). Quality management for the application of good laboratory practices intoxicology studies and quality control of data recording and reporting. It clears the blood of theparasites, but the supply is constantly renewed from the foci in the lorazepam 1mg prescription for nervousaxis and eventually the parasites become resistant. Your product is the same quality i was getting in the local pharmacy but your pricing has help me to better afford my medication. The application of gmp provides a guarantee that drug products are manufactured reproducibly and in accordance withthe quality criteria in the approved registration dossier to ensure their safetyand efficacy. The differences between59s 8vb8taxces acting after absorptioxtheir effects are more in degree than order lorazepam 2mg online in usa in kind, and there seems noquestion that their ultimate action on protoplasm is of the same nature.it is to he noted, however, that there is no reason to buy generic klonopin 1mg suppose thatphosphorus owes order lorazepam 2mg online in usa its action to any of its numerous compounds withoxygen, while it is probahle that the oxides of arsenic alone are capableof modifying vital functions.the sulphur compounds of arsenic are entirely insoluble and order lorazepam 2mg online in usa are thereforenot absorbed as such, but it seems likely that small quantities of arseniou-acid are formed from them in the intestine by microbes. Atsteady state, a 500 mg oral dose of ciprofloxacin results in peaksputum concentrations of 1.86|xg/g in patients with cf (lebelet al., buy lorazepam 2mg in hanoi 1986). Restlessness tramadol and epilepsy and garrulity point to an increase in theirritability of the brain; the patient at first talks in a perfectly normalway but soon becomes confused, begins a sentence and does not finishit, often bursts into laughter or sobs, and where to purchase ativan 1mg in uk in short becomes deliriousand eventually maniacal. This study is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in patients with ed and endothelial dysfunction. Healthcareprofessionals are asked to rep mechanism of actiontadalafil is a selective, reversible inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cgmp)-specificphosphodiesterase type 5 order lorazepam 2mg online in usa (pde5). A phase 2a study inpatients with cf also demonstrated the potential to considerablyincrease lung ciprofloxacin concentrations by aerosol adminis-tration of order lorazepam 2mg online in usa cfi compared to orally administered ciprofloxacin. — apomorphine is used chiefly as an emetic, andfor some buy cheap ativan online in the uk purposes presents several advantages over the older order lorazepam 2mg online in usa drugsemployed with this object, inasmuch as it acts more promptly and canbe administered by the hypodermic needle, while the other emeticscause vomiting by irritating the stomach and have to be given by themouth, which is a serious drawback in cases of poisoning. However, with time,hepatic gsh is order lorazepam 2mg online in usa depleted faster than it can be regenerated, and areactive, toxic metabolite accumulates. But these have lost to alarge extent their normal capacity of decomposing fats, which aretherefore deposited in the cells in the same forms as occur in thenormal adipose tissue.another view has recently been suggested, that the essential featurein phosphorus poisoning in the change in the carbohydrate metabolism;the liver forms lactic acid from its glycogen which it can no longerretain, and this lactic acid is neutralized by ammonia. purchase lorazepam 1mg tablets online in animals bloodyurine is sometimes passed after colchicine.in poisoning with colchicine the leucocytes are at first reduced inthe peripheral circulation, but afterwards increase to beyond thenormal number.all purchase lorazepam 2mg online india of these symptoms are exactly those caused by a large numberof poisons, including some of the bacterial toxins and the heavymetals. There has been a lot of interest by both patients and physicians in dutasteride, which is a drug that inhibits both type order lorazepam 2mg online in usa i order lorazepam 2mg online in usa and type ii 5 alpha reductase enzyme. Long a subject of discussion,its usefulness in this infection is now acknowledged by all who havestudied the subject. Weekend drug' in europe, order lorazepam 2mg online in usa is a new treatment for erectile dysfunction (ed) from lilly buy alprazolam 1mg in uk icos llc. — its action on the sweat glands renderspilocarpine much the most powerful sudorific in the pharmacopoeia,and it is used internally almost exclusively for this purpose. The insoluble prepara-tions — calomel, blue pill and gray powder — are used for this purpose,as they are not dissolved in the stomach and are therefore devoid ofaction there, while in the intestine their longer sojourn and specialj628 the order lorazepam 2mg online in usa heavy metalsaffinity for the epithelium leads to their irritant action being developeda small proportion of these insoluble preparations is absorbed fromthe intestine, but the great mass is thrown out unchanged in the stools,and thus very large doses of calomel sometimes induce no serioussymptoms. Wheneversuch reactions occur, amoxicillin should bediscontinued unless, in the opinion of the physician,the condition being treated is life-threatening andamenable only to amoxicillin therapy.liver:a moderate rise in order lorazepam 2mg online in usa ast (sgot) and/or order lorazepam 2mg online in usa alt (sgpt) has been noted, but the significance ofthis finding is unknown. Somewhat stronger solutions increase its tonus and eventually causesystolic standstill. The mics should be determined using astandardized procedure. These types of tests (e., intramuscular injectionin rabbits with histopathological evaluation of the site of injection) can alsobe conducted in this phase of drug discovery as in early development. Some escapes by the order lorazepam 2mg online in usa salivary glands, however, and smallquantities are excreted by the stomach as hydriodic acid and some-times as free iodine; iodide has also been found in the tears, perspira-tion, milk, sebum, and in the secretion of the nasal mucous membranes.more iodide is found in the blood than in any of the fixed tissues; theiodides 521skin is also rich in iodide, while the lungs, kidneys and lymph glandscontain smaller quantities; the brain and fatty tissues have merelytraces; diseased organs are said to take up more than sound ones.iodides are much more rapidly excreted than bromides, for 65-80 percent, of order lorazepam 2mg online in usa the iodide appears in the purchase lorazepam online legally cheap urine within 24 hours after its ad-ministration, and no iodide reaction is obtained from any of the secre-tions a week after the treatment has ceased. Chlorobutanol,benzalkonium chloride, order lorazepam 2mg online in usa and phenylmercuric nitrate are commonly used in these applications.although few micro-organisms are viable below a ph of 3 orabove a ph of 9, most aqueous pharmaceutical preparations aremanufactured within the favorable ph range. It is also used to arrest the secre-tion of the milk, a belladonna plaster being strapped over the gland. It works by helping to relax muscles and increase blood flow into the penis during sexual stimulation. Dose : this stimulation by small quantities seems limitedto the inhibitory cardiac centre in the medulla oblongata, but whenlarger doses of want to buy ativan in mexico digitalis and its allies are injected, other parts of themedulla become stimulated, and vomiting, increased respiration, andeventually general convulsions may be produced.the extent to which the members of this series act as stimulants tothe nervous centres varies, but as yet little comparative work has beendone in this direction.the action of the heart is the most important of all, and is whatdistinguishes digitalis and its allies from all other substances. On account of both its depressing eflfect on thesecretion of hydrochloric add and its paralyzing effect upon thepyloric sphincter, atropine has been used with much success, bothinternally and by subcutaneous injection, in diseases of the stomach attended with hyperacidity and pylorospasm, as ulcers anderosions.atropine finds a great field of usefulness in ophthalmology,where it is employed to dilate the pupil and to paralyze accommodation in order to permit of examination of the eye. Dose should not be exceeded in a 24-hour period when used in combination with 200 mg once daily ketoconazole. Many drugs induce itonly when injected in large quantities and at the end of a series of phenomenaproduced by their action on other parts of the body; it is observed much morefrequently in frogs than in mammals, and is often of little importance com-pared to the order lorazepam 2mg online in usa other symptoms. It is most effective when sleep is pre-vented by motor excitement, and the sleep seems to arise from therelief of this condition and not from depression of the consciousness.hyoscine is laevorotary to polarized light; the racemic form, which is order lorazepam 2mg online in usa oftenpresent in commercial hyoscine, acts only one-half as strongly on the per-ipheral organs, because in it the kevorotary alkaloid is mixed with the dextro-rotary isomer, which is almost inactive. New opportunities for achieving satisfying and successful intercourse open up to you as you progress order lorazepam 2mg online in usa through each additional step. Order lorazepam 2mg online in usa thus of thehydrocarbons, the very volatile pental is very active while thenonvolatile and insoluble paraflne is absolutely inert.the very volatile compounds are order lorazepam 2mg online in usa absorbed by the lungs in theform of vapors in suflsicient quantities to produce complete paralysis of the brain. The use of atropineto paralyze the vagus terminations before the administration of ananaesthetic has been discussed already.s of the motor nerves in the iris and ciliarymuscles. Nanotechnology is capable of improving drugresearch and development by providing researchers more infor-mation about drugs and targets, allowing high content screening,decreasing volumes of expensive reagents, and enhancing solu-bility and selective tissue targeting.

buy generic lorazepam 2mg with mastercard


— the general protoplasmic effect seen from mostof the members of the order lorazepam 2mg online in usa coal tar group, is especially well markedwith phenol or carbolic acid. Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis, may also cause impotence. They are still able to make a nimiber of jerky contractions of the extremities while their respirationsbecome fewer and fewer. This drug inhibits viral reproduction want to buy ativan online legally by interfering with the production of DNA in the virus. The latter are conducted in a variety of species,at several dosage levels of the drug, and over periods of timeranging from 3 months up to 30 months. In a few patients,there was evidence buy drug ativan 1mg in uk of slight renal irritation. Whatever preparation be used, it oughtto be well diluted to avoid the irritant action on the stomach wall.instead of these alkalies, the carbonate and oxide of magnesium maybe employed in powder, and possess the advantage of not causingany irritation and at the same time have some aperient action. It penetrates into the deeper layers of the skin, and smallquantities are absorbed.the mucous membranes are more strongly affected by contact withit; thus when its vapor is inhaled for some time, smarting, swellingand increased secretion is caused buy cheap lorazepam 2mg online with prescription in the nasal mucous membranes, con-junctiva, throat and lower respiratory passages, resembling exactly thesymptoms known as iodism. order lorazepam 2mg online in usa taking sildenafil after eating a high-fat meal (such as a cheeseburger and french fries) may cause the medication to take a little longer to start working. It has therefore order lorazepam 2mg online in usa a greater antiseptic powerthan many of the other acids, but compared with its action on the higher order lorazepam 2mg online in usa formsof life, it is but slightly poisonous to the fungi. Finally, the preservative must not impact the safety or comfort of the patientwhen administered. The natives of peru and bolivia have used it forcenturies to increase their endurance of fatigue. For some men, making a few healthy lifestyle changes order lorazepam 2mg online in usa may solve the problem. Since that time, their sexual relationship has silently cheapest generic lorazepam 1mg online ireland dwindled. Ithas also been used order lorazepam 2mg online in usa to digest croupous or diphtheritic membranesin the throat.diastase is the enzyme of malt which changes starches intosugar. Clinic is a not-for-profit organization and proceeds from web advertising help support our mission. In malignant malaria, quinineis best given intravenously in fifteen-grain doses repeated if necessaryafter six hours; for purchase generic ativan in the uk online this purpose the hydrochloride dissolved in warmsaline is the best preparation, the more soluble acid salts tending toreact with the blood proteins. This, coupled with newclues as to potential drug targets uncovered through the humangenome project, new histochemical order lorazepam 2mg online in usa methods to identify targetsat a cellular level, and new approaches to computer modelingof potential drug compounds has led to many new candidatesfor development. Toward the fatal issue of the injection the heart often ceaentirely for some time and then regains its former rhythm quite suddofrthe bloodpressure falls, partly owing to the weakness of the heart, parifrom depression of the vasomotor centre.smaller quantities injected order lorazepam 2mg online in usa intravenously or subcutaneously into mamminduce a more chronic form of intoxication, which resembles that seen in nmthe earliest symptoms are loss of appetite, vomiting and buy drug ativan in japan diarrhoea, salirataand stomatitis with ulceration of the gums, tongue, and buccal mucous mecbrane. The sugar is added in order to retard this oxidation.but the carbonate ought not to be dispensed unless it is of recent preparation., 1030 grs.pilule ferri carbona'tis (u.), pilula ferri (b.) ferruginousor chalybeate pills, blaud's pills, are prepared in the same way, order lorazepam 2mg online in usa by the actionof ferrous sulphate and order lorazepam 2mg online in usa carbonate of potash or soda. On the otherhand, in the experiment order lorazepam 2mg online in usa in which the artery is ligatured, stimulationof the nerves above the ligature, that is, where the poison has accessto the order lorazepam 2mg online in usa nerve fibres, causes contraction, so that the nerve trunks do notseem affected. Yes, you may need a bit more stimulation in the way of stroking and touching, just a bit more foreplay than when you were younger. Was due to the discovery of its efficacy in ague or malaria, and withgrowing experience in the disease and its treatment, the confidence inthe drug, or rather in its chief alkaloid, has constantly increased, untilthe action of quinine in malaria is now quoted as the best example ofa specific in therapeutics. Order lorazepam 2mg online in usa although the volume is small, all the standard literature was consulted and carefully weighed before being admitted or rejected, and the criterionwas always to preserve all the essential, known facts regarding the action of drugs, but to reject vague and contradictory statements of no importance which would but confuse the beginner.at the end of each group description there is a brief summary of the general action; following the latter is a short statement concerning the uses and pplications, and, lastly there is a concise description of the different preparations order lorazepam 2mg online in usa used in medicine with their doses. These are all indications ativan order that thedrug has been pushed too far, and they order lorazepam 2mg online in usa all disappear when the dose isreduced.in some cases of auricular fibrillation in which the heart is not muchaccelerated, digitalis has no such striking effect though improvementoccurs under it. Patients with hyperprolactinaemia, frequently associated with low testosterone values, can develop low libido and erectile dysfunction by unknown mechanisms. Jamie's extremities, causing gangrene and impaired circulation. Guidance documents in the ichq5 series and ich q10 outline qc or testing considerationsthat address the structure, potency, and purity of proteins and32pharmaceutical analysis and quality controlthe analysis of contaminants resulting from the manufacturingprocess or degradation. This is particularly order lorazepam 2mg online in usa challengingfor qc departments due to some gross differences betweenbiological therapeutic agents and chemical drug products. In chronic poisoning ulceration of thesmall order lorazepam 2mg online in usa intestine is said to occur, especially around the solitary folliclesand peyer's patches.620 the heavy metalsthe acceleration of the pulse seen after tartar emetic is due to the emeticaction and not to the order lorazepam 2mg online in usa absorption of the drug. Visual identification of oxida-tion, for example, the change from colorless epinephrine to itsamber colored products, may not be visible in some dilutionsor to some eyes.oxidation is catalyzed by ph values that are higher than op-timum, polyvalent heavy metal ions (e., copper and iron), andexposure to oxygen and uv illumination. In24 hours. Atopy), these effects may never bedetected. Most of the caco-dylate is eliminated unchanged in the urine, some appears to be reduced tocacodyl, (cha)4asi, which is excreted in the breath and lends it an odor likegarlic, while another small proportion is changed to the inorganic form andexercises the typical arsenic action. — most animals withstand much larger quantities ofatropine than man, and an especial degree of tolerance is met within the herbivora; rabbits, for example, may buy generic tramadol 200mg online with prescription be fed for weeks on bella-donna leaves without showing any symptoms; this is order lorazepam 2mg online india undoubtedlythe result of the active buy ativan 2mg online with mastercard decomposition of the alkaloid which occurs intheir serum. In addition, spontaneous movements charac-terized as myoclonus occur in more than 50% of order lorazepam 2mg online in usa patients receivingetomidate, and this myoclonic activity may be associated order lorazepam 2mg online in usa withseizure-like activity on the eeg. Severe colics and tenesmus arise and the subject fallsinto a state of collapse, accompanied by a difficidty in movingat first the lower, and later the upper limbs. (1 ) explicit memory, ie, specificawareness or consciousness under anesthesia, and (2) implicitmemory, the unconscious acquisition of information under ade-quate levels of anesthesia. N-terminal kinases have a leading role in the central nervous system. A 1-2 per cent, solution of the lactate isused in the eye, 2-5 per cent, for other mucous surfaces and for sub-cutaneous injection.

generic ativan 1mg

Despite concernsregarding this finding, no outcome studies have demonstrated anadverse effect. Nls, quotes will appear delayed from primary listing source. Drugs that relax arterial smooth musclereduce cardiac afterload.myocardial contractilitypositive lorazepam 1mg prescription wiki inotropes (i. Avoid lorazepam for order prolonged exposure to sunlight and wear sunscreen during therapy. The tem-perature is often subnormal and death occure in the course of a fewhours. They cause a great immediate rise of blood pressure due to constriction of all purchase ativan minneapolis peripheralblood vessels, which in turn is the result of stimulation of theconstrictor nerveendings in the vessel walls. The fda and ich q1a (r2) guidances require at least12 months stability data at the time of submission. The first dozen were good but not exactly as i had envisioned. This envelope of water of hydration preventschain segments that are in close proximity from touching andattracting one another through interchain hydrogen bonds andvan der waals forces as they do in the solid state. Drug therapy re-quires an elaborate and thorough knowledge of where to buy ativan online in canada the kinetics ofthese processes after intravenous, oral, topical, sublingual, orintraorifice administration of the drug. If the sciatic nerve of the frog be stimulated during the par-alysis no movement follows, but if the artery of one leg be ligaturedbefore the application of the poison this limb remains unparalyzedand reacts to reflex irritation, while the rest of the body is perfectly motion less. A selective inhibitor of cyp3a4, ketoconazole(200 mg daily), increased tadalafil (10mg) exposure (auc) 2-fold and cmaxby 15%, relative to theauc and cmaxvalues for tadalafil alone. Children usually have a lower incidence ofand less severe emergence reactions. Flere, we only discuss the eu guidelines that apply tofinished products. The specific molecular mechanism of protectionis not understood and can involve specific blocking of adsorption to the interface or enhanced removal from order lorazepam 2mg online in usa the interfacebefore protein unfolding can occur. The nuclear magnetic field of the nuclei interactswith the very buy drug ultram in hanoi large magnetic field (10 000-50 000 g) of the instrumentwhereby the nuclear magnetic field can reach a number of quantum states.the spin states that are oriented parallel to the order lorazepam 2mg online in usa external magnetic field arelower in energy than the spin states opposing the external field. For capsules, the gelatin shellis extremely hydrophilic, and, therefore, no problems in wet-tability exist for the dosage itself, although it may exist for thepowders inside.after the solid dosage form disintegrates into granules oraggregates, penetration characteristics play a prime role in thedeaggregation process. Ciprofloxacin (cip) may be prescribed to individuals allergic toamo or to those that present failure in the triple therapy 26 . Where to buy ativan 1mg online with american express in general, as it is only the fraction of the drug in solu-tion that hydrolyzes, a order lorazepam 2mg online in usa compound may be stabilized by reducingits solubility. This dose was also not associated with arthrotoxicity after an additional treatment-free period of 5 months. This way the quality standards purchase ativan 1mg tablets online of the drug product and themanufacturing process can be met. This initself is sufficient to explain many of the symptoms from these organs,although it may well cheapest generic alprazolam 1mg no prescription be that the vascular action is the cause of theexcess of fluid in the intestine, and in fact, the fatty infiltration aloneis insufficient to explain this feature, which is absent in phosphoruspoisoning. Regulation of noncontact erection in rats by gonadal steroids. Theobromine has a diuretic action more constant than that of caffeine because it never contracts the smallerrenal vessels centrally, but always produces a marked dilatation.this dilatation is said to be of value in renal order lorazepam 2mg online in usa affections, by imgroup of capfeine. Some escapes by the salivary glands, however, and smallquantities are excreted by the stomach as hydriodic acid and some-times as free iodine; iodide has also been found in the tears, perspira-tion, milk, sebum, and in the secretion of the nasal mucous membranes.more iodide is found in the blood than in any of the fixed tissues; theiodides 521skin is also rich in iodide, while the lungs, kidneys and lymph glandscontain smaller quantities; the brain and fatty tissues have merelytraces; diseased organs are said to take up more than sound ones.iodides are much more rapidly excreted than order lorazepam 2mg online in usa bromides, for 65-80 percent, of the iodide appears in the urine within 24 hours order lorazepam 2mg online in usa after its ad-ministration, and no iodide reaction is obtained order lorazepam 2mg online in usa from any order lorazepam 2mg online in usa of the secre-tions a week after the treatment has ceased. Black market tote bag is commercial quality high resolution heat transfer product. Copulatory behavior and reflexive penile erection in rats after section of the pudendal and genitofemoral nerves. In this way it has been found that duringfever the coordination is quite as perfect as in health, but that theprotective reactions are induced at a higher temperature. It is significant that malonic and succinic acids form much order lorazepam 2mg online in usa motsoluble salts with lime than order lorazepam 2mg online in usa does oxalic acid. Due to the widely different chemical constitution of these compounds, order lorazepam 2mg online in usa they have a variety of uses, depending on the specific compound, in both oral and topicalpreparations. But let every man make he who had birth after of the lord but as of the joy brand titus there were fightings outside and. And b., its power may vary very widely accordingto the proportion of lcevorotary alkaloid (hyoscyamine) to racemic(atropine).lamellce homatropince (b.), gelatin discs, each weighing gr. Create new brain cells and these cells are created in both elderly as well as young subjects., the order lorazepam 2mg online in usa drug provides very significant neurological functional benefit. Ofmercury, the chlorides of zinc, copper, tin and antimony, while thechlorides of iron, sulphates of copper, zinc, iron and manganese, theacetates of copper and zinc, and the nitrates of silver and lead areastringents when applied order lorazepam 2mg online in usa in very dilute solution, order lorazepam 2mg online in usa but tend to irritateand corrode in large quantities. It is said to afflict as much as 10 percent of the male population. Concentrated ether vapors may paralyze the heart atthe beginning of anaesthesia before the drug has had time to order lorazepam 2mg online in usa reachthe central nervous system. Tin is often containedin preserved foods containing acids, from being dissolved off the vessels, and iscertainly absorbed, for it has been detected in the urine after the use of sucharticles. Hypokalemia may develop with lasix,especially with brisk diuresis, inadequate oral electrolyte intake, when cirrhosis is present, orduring concomitant use of corticosteroids, acth, licorice in large amounts, or prolonged use oflaxatives. Oil of wintergreen is more irritantlocally than salicylic add because it possesses in order lorazepam 2mg online in usa addition to itscharacteristic action, the irritant effect of all volatile oils. It is quite useless order ativan in thailand intherapeutics.the other acids of the acetic acid series resemble acetic acid in their effects,but become less irritant as they become more complex and less easily dissociated.556 substances acting after absorptionlactic acid resembles acetic acid in its behavior in the organism. All naturally occurring agents purchase lorazepam nashville show variations intheir emulsifying properties from batch to batch.finely divided solids are the colloidal clays: aminoglycosides distribute plasma protein binding order lorazepam 2mg online in usa is often mentioned as a factor playing arole in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and drug interac-tions. Phosphorus has beendetected in the blood, and, it is said, in some of the excretions.it is devoid of action on albumins in solution and order lorazepam 2mg online in usa has no immediateirritant effects, such as are seen in poisoning with the heavy metals. Order lorazepam 2mg online in usa if how use of ativan atropine be injected, stimulationcauses no increase in the secretion, and atropine, therefore, seems toparalyze some part of the peripheral secretory apparatus. It has also been used in cases of synechia (attachmentof the iris to the lens) alternately with atropine. Online, now you know where you can do this fast and easy. After awaking from morphine sleep,there may be noticed in man, more or less order lorazepam 2mg online in usa nausea or vomiting anddepression, and occasionally headache and excitement.

Laisser une réponse

Votre adresse de messagerie ne sera pas publiée. Les champs obligatoires sont indiqués avec *